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API 571 Damage Mechanisms Affecting Fixed Equipment in the Refining and Petrochemical Industries

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 Course Overview

API RP 571-2011 is the latest edition that describes damage mechanisms affecting equipment in the refining and petrochemical industries. A key first step in managing equipment safety and reliability is the identification and understanding of the various damage mechanisms. Proper identification of damage mechanisms is also required when implementing the API Inspection Codes (API 510, API 570, API 653) and in carrying out risk based inspection (RBI) per API 580 and API 581. When performing a fitness-for-service (FFS) assessment using API 579, the damage mechanisms need to be understood and need to be considered when evaluating the remaining life.


This 5-day corrosion short course aims to provide the participants with a thorough understanding of the various damage mechanisms contained in the latest edition of API RP 571-2011 that can affect process equipment, the type and extent of damage that can be expected, and how this knowledge can be applied to the selection of effective inspection methods to detect size and characterize damage. The 66 damage mechanisms to be discussed in this corrosion short course are common to a variety of industries including refining and petrochemical, pulp and paper, and fossil utility:



Damage Mechanism


Damage Mechanism




Softening (Spheroidization)


Wet H2S Damage (Blistering/HIC/SOHIC/SSC)


Reheat Cracking


Creep / Stress Rupture


Sulfuric Acid Corrosion


High temperature H2/H2S Corrosion


Hydrofluoric Acid (HF)Corrosion


Polythionic Acid Stress Corrosion Cracking


Flue Gas Dew Point Corrosion


Naphthenic Acid Corrosion (NAC)


Dissimilar Metal Weld (DMW) Cracking


Ammonium Bisulfide Corrosion


Hydrogen Stress Cracking in HF


Ammonium Chloride Corrosion


Dealloying (Dezincification/ Denickelification)


Hydrochloric Acid (HCl )  Corrosion


CO2 Corrosion


High Temperature  Hydrogen Attack (HTHA)


Corrosion Fatigue




Fuel Ash Corrosion


Thermal Fatigue


Amine Corrosion


Sour Water Corrosion (acidic )


Corrosion Under Insulation (CUI)


Refractory Degradation


Atmospheric  Corrosion




Ammonia Stress Corrosion Cracking


Temper Embrittlement


Cooling Water Corrosion




Boiler Water I Condensate Corrosion


Caustic Stress Corrosion Cracking


Microbiologically Induced Corrosion (MIC)


Caustic Corrosion


Liquid Metal Embrittlement


Erosion I Erosion-Corrosion


Galvanic Corrosion


Carbonate Stress Corrosion Cracking (ACSCC)


Mechanical Fatigue


Amine Cracking




Chloride Stress Corrosion Cracking


Vibration-Induced Fatigue




Titanium Hydriding


Hydrogen Embrittlement


Soil Corrosion


Steam Blanketing


Metal Dusting


Thermal Shock


Strain Aging




Sulfate Stress Corrosion Cracking


Graphitic Corrosion (see Dealloying)


Phosphoric  Acid Corrosion


Short term Overheating – Stress Rupture


Phenol (carbolic acid) Corrosion


Brittle Fracture


Ethanol Stress Corrosion Cracking


Sigma  Phase  / Chi Embrittlement


Oxygen-Enhanced Ignition and Combustion


  885°F (475°C) Embrittlement


Organic  Acid  Corrosion   Of  Distillation Tower Overhead Systems


This corrosion short course is available for in-house training, online and distance learning worldwide. It can also be customized to meet the specific needs of your organization.


Course Outline |Who Should Attend |Registration |In-House |On-Demand |Online Courses |PPT Slides+Testbank |Course List

 Course Outline

1. Introduction to Corrosion

    1.1 Corrosion: Definition and Examples

    1.2 Basic Concepts in Electrochemistry

    1.3 Why Do Metals Corrode

    1.4 Kinetics: the Rate of Corrosion

    1.5 How Do Metals Corrode: Different Forms of Corrosion

    1.6 General Methods for Corrosion Control


2. Common Alloys Used in the Refining and Petrochemical Industries

3. Overview of API RP 571-2011


4. General Damage Mechanisms – All Industries Including Refining and
    Petrochemical, Pulp and Paper, and Fossil Utility  

    4.1 General

    4.2 Mechanical and Metallurgical Failure Mechanisms

           4.2.1 Graphitization

           4.2.2 Softening (Spheroidization)

           4.2.3 Temper Embrittlement

           4.2.4 Strain Aging

           4.2.5 885oF Embrittlement

           4.2.6 Sigma Phase Embrittlement

           4.2.7 Brittle Fracture

           4.2.8 Creep / Stress Rupture

           4.2.9 Thermal Fatigue

           4.2.10 Short Term Overheating – Stress Rupture

           4.2.11 Steam Blanketing

           4.2.12 Dissimilar Metal Weld (DMW) Cracking

           4.2.13 Thermal Shock

           4.2.14 Erosion / Erosion-Corrosion

           4.2.15 Cavitation

           4.2.16 Mechanical Fatigue

           4.2.17 Vibration-Induced Fatigue

           4.2.18 Refractory Degradation

           4.2.19 Reheat Cracking

           4.2.20 Gaseous Oxygen-Enhanced Ignition and Combustion


    4.3 Uniform or Localized Loss of Thickness

           4.3.1 Galvanic Corrosion

           4.3.2 Atmospheric Corrosion

           4.3.3 Corrosion Under Insulation (CUI)

           4.3.4 Cooling Water Corrosion

           4.3.5 Boiler Water Condensate Corrosion

           4.3.6 CO2 Corrosion

           4.3.7 Flue Gas Dew Point Corrosion

           4.3.8 Microbiologically Induced Corrosion (MIC)

           4.3.9 Soil Corrosion

           4.3.10 Caustic Corrosion

           4.3.11 Dealloying

           4.3.12 Graphitic Corrosion

    4.4 High Temperature Corrosion [400oF (204oC)]

           4.4.1 Oxidation

           4.4.2 Sulfidation

           4.4.3 Carburization

           4.4.4 Decarburization

           4.4.5 Metal Dusting

           4.4.6 Fuel Ash Corrosion

           4.4.7 Nitriding

    4.5 Environment – Assisted Cracking

          4.5.1 Chloride Stress Corrosion Cracking (CI–SCC)

          4.5.2 Corrosion Fatigue

          4.5.3 Caustic Stress Corrosion Cracking (Caustic Embrittlement)

          4.5.4 Ammonia Stress Corrosion Cracking

          4.5.5 Liquid Metal Embrittlement (LME)

          4.5.6 Hydrogen Embrittlement (HE)

          4.5.7 Ethanol Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC)

          4.5.8 Sulfate Stress Corrosion Cracking


5  Refining Industry Damage Mechanisms

    5.1 General

           5.1.1 Uniform or Localized Loss in Thickness Phenomena

             Amine Corrosion

             Ammonium Bisulfide Corrosion (Alkaline Sour Water)

             Ammonium Chloride Corrosion

             Hydrochloric Acid (HCl) Corrosion

             High Temperature H2/H2S Corrosion

             Hydrofluoric (HF) Acid Corrosion

             Naphthenic Acid Corrosion (NAC)

             Phenol (Carbonic Acid) Corrosion

             Phosphoric Acid Corrosion

             Sulfuric Acid Corrosion

             Aqueous Organic Acid Corrosion

            5.1.2 Environment–Assisted Cracking

             Polythionic Acid Stress Corrosion Cracking (PASCC)

             Amine Stress Corrosion Cracking

             Wet H2S Damage (Blistering / HIC / SOHIC / SCC)

             Hydrogen Stress Cracking – HF

             Carbonate Stress Corrosion Cracking (ACSCC)

            5.1.3 Other Mechanisms

             High Temperature Hydrogen Attack (HTHA)

             Titanium Hydriding

      5.2 Process Unit PFD’s

             5.2.1 Crude Unit / Vacuum

             5.2.2 Delayed Coker

             5.2.3 Fluid Catalytic Cracking

             5.2.4 FCC Light Ends Recovery

             5.2.5 Catalytic Reforming – CCR

             5.2.6 Catalytic Reforming – Fixed Bed

             5.2.7 Hydroprocessing Units – Hydrotreating, Hydrocracking

             5.2.8 Sulfuric Acid Alkylation

             5.2.9 HF Alkylation

             5.2.10 Amine Treating

             5.2.11 Sulfur Recovery

             5.2.12 Sour Water Stripper

             5.2.13 Isomerization

             5.2.14 Hydrogen Reforming


6. API RP 571 Course Examination

The end of course examination is similar to the API 571 certification examination in both the format and contents. It consists of 70 questions to be answered in 4 hours. The passing score is 70%.


Course Outline |Who Should Attend |Registration |In-House |On-Demand |Online Courses |PPT Slides+Testbank |Course List

Who Should Attend


Designers, Inspection Engineers, Maintenance Engineers, Plant Inspectors, Mechanical Engineers, and Process Engineers in the refining and petrochemical industries.


 Registration for This  Corrosion Course
  • Click here to register for this corrosion course online, or

  • Click here to download this corrosion course brochure with registration form in PDF format.

 In-House Training Corrosion Courses/On-Site Training Corrosion Courses


If you are concerned with corrosion in your business, in-house training or on-site training is a great solution to train a group of employees from design, production, operation, quality assurance, inspection and maintenance, and technical sales and support on corrosion control and corrosion prevention technology. The contents of all our corrosion courses can be customized to fit your organization's needs.


There is no limit to the number of participants required for in-house training corrosion courses or on-site training corrosion courses. We conduct the in-house or on-site  training corrosion courses at your company's premises worldwide and at a time convenient to your company.


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 Corrosion Course-On-Demand


All our publicly scheduled corrosion short courses are conducted once a year. However, you do not need to wait for one year if you have missed any of the publicly scheduled corrosion courses as we have this unique corrosion course-on-demand scheme: we will conduct the course just for you on an one-on-one basis at a time and in a location convenient to you. This option costs significantly less than a full-scale in-house training program.


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 Online and Distance Learning Corrosion Courses


All our corrosion short courses are available for online or offline distance learning. You can start an online course at any time and learn at your own comfortable pace, whenever and wherever you are. You have around-the-clock access to interactive and media-rich course materials, virtual labs, course instructions, course assignments, and course assessments. Discussions and questions related to the corrosion courses are posted on the website or exchanged through email for a period up to 12 months. Video conferencing or instant messaging can also be arranged for discussions of course topics. For those who do not have ready access to internet, we can send you our online course materials on a CD-ROM or DVD or USB memory stick for offline learning.

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 PowerPoint Slides and Test Banks for Trainers, Instructors, Tutors, University Lecturers and Professors


If you are involved in teaching corrosion courses, you may wish to purchase a complete set of PowerPoint slides and the computerized test banks (in MicroTest format) with solutions. These presentations are suitable for teaching corrosion courses at different levels (from undergraduate to postgraduate) and durations (from 6 hrs to 40 hrs). These ready-to-use corrosion PowerPoint slides contain high quality color photographs, illustrations, animations and video clips. They can also be easily edited and customized to your own styles. The corrosion test banks contain over 1,000 corrosion questions for your use in tutorials, tests or examinations. These questions are conveniently grouped into 4 categories in the test bank: (1) true or false, (2) multiple choice, (3) calculation, and (4) reasoning and open-ended discussions).


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