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Electrochemical Migration (ECM), Conductive Anodic Filament (CAF) Formation and Surface Insulation Resistance (SIR) Testing

Course Outline |Who Should Attend |Registration |In-House |On-Demand |Online Courses |PPT Slides+Testbank |Course List

 Course Overview


Corrosion is responsible for more than 50% of microelectronic device failures. Electrochemical corrosion of metallic conductors, electrochemical migration or dendrite growth, and conductive anodic filament (CAF) formation on a printed wiring board can lead to circuit failures. It is important to understand the cause of these failures in order to select materials and processes for soldering and cleaning that will minimize the occurrence of these failures. This course thoroughly and systematically covers the causes and processes of electrochemical migration (ECM), dendrites formation, conductive anodic filament (CAF) formation, their effects on surface insulation resistance (SIR), and the industry standard methods and procedures for SIR testing.


This 1-day short course can be taken as in-house training course, online course and distance learning course worldwide. It can also be customized to meet the specific needs of your organization.


Course Outline |Who Should Attend |Registration |In-House |On-Demand |Online Courses |PPT Slides+Testbank |Course List

 Course Outline

1. Electrochemical Migration (ECM)

 1.1 Definition of Electrochemical Migration (ECM)
   1.2 ECM Processes and Dendrites Formation
   1.3 Reactions on the Anode
   1.4 Reactions on the Cathode
   1.5 Factors Influencing ECM and Dendrites Formation
   1.6 Electrochemical Migration Testing
   1.7 Electrochemical Migration (ECM) vs Electromigration (EM)
   1.8 Electrochemical Migration Failure Analysis and Prevention

2. Conductive Anodic Filament (CAF) Formation

   2.1 Definition of Conductive Anodic Filament (CAF)
   2.2 Mechanisms of CAF Formation and Growth
   2.3 Factors Influencing CAF Formation
          2.3.1 Substrate materials 
          2.3.2 Conductor configuration 
          2.3.3 Voltage gradient 
          2.3.4 Solder flux and HASL fluid
          2.3.5 Cleaning
          2.3.6 Temperature 
          2.3.7 Humidity
   2.4 Catastrophic Field Failures Due to CAF Formation
   2.6 Conductive Anodic Filament vs Dendrite

3. Surface Insulation Resistance (SIR) Testing

   3.1 Definition of Surface Insulation Resistance (SIR)
   3.2 Basic Principles of SIR Testing
   3.3 The Importance of SIR Testing
   3.4 Effects of Electrochemical Migration (ECM) and 
          Conductive Anodic Filament (CAF) on SIR 
   3.5 SIR Testing: Industry Standards and Test Procedures
   3.6 SIR Testing: IPC J-STD-004A vs J-STD-004B
   3.7 SIR Testing: Factors Influencing SIR Test Results
   3.8 SIR Testing: Hourly vs Daily Readings
   3.9 SIR Testing: Pass/Fail Criteria
   3.10 Failures During SIR Testing

4. Exercises and Case Studies


Course Outline |Who Should Attend |Registration |In-House |On-Demand |Online Courses |PPT Slides+Testbank |Course List

 Who Should Attend


Engineers, designers, and QA/QC personnel working in the microelectronics and semiconductor industry.


 Registration for This  Corrosion Course


  • Click here to register for this corrosion course online, or

  • Click here to download this corrosion course brochure with registration form in PDF format.

 In-House Training Corrosion Courses


If you are concerned with corrosion in your business, in-house training is a great solution to train a group of employees from design, production, operation, quality assurance, inspection and maintenance, and technical sales and support on corrosion control and corrosion prevention technology. The contents of all corrosion courses can be customized to fit your organization's needs.


There is no minimum or maximum number of participants required for in-house training corrosion courses. We conduct the in-house training corrosion course at your company's premises and at a time convenient to your company. Requests for in-house training corrosion courses from overseas countries are also welcome.


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 Corrosion Course-On-Demand


All our publicly scheduled corrosion short courses are conducted once a year. However, you do not need to wait for one year if you have missed any of the publicly scheduled corrosion courses as we have this unique corrosion course-on-demand scheme: we will conduct the course just for you on an one-on-one basis at a time and in a location convenient to you. This option costs significantly less than a full-scale in-house training program.


Click here to contact us for a quotation for taking this course as course-on-demand.


 Online and Distance Learning Corrosion Courses

All corrosion courses can be conducted through online or distance learning. An username and password will be emailed to course participants for accessing the online course materials. Alternatively, a CD-ROM containing the same online course material or a master hard copy of corrosion course notes can be sent to your organization. Instructions, course assignments, discussions and questions related to the corrosion courses are posted on the website. Free email support for online courses is provided for a period up to 12 months. A Certificate of Completion will be issued to participants who pass the online test with a score of 70% and above.

Click here to register this corrosion short course for online or distance learning.

 PowerPoint Slides and Test Banks for Trainers, Instructors, Tutors, University Lecturers and Professors


If you are involved in teaching corrosion courses, you may wish to purchase a complete set of PowerPoint slides and the computerized test banks (in MicroTest format) with solutions. These presentations are suitable for teaching corrosion courses at different levels (from undergraduate to postgraduate) and durations (from 6 hrs to 40 hrs). These ready-to-use corrosion PowerPoint slides contain high quality color photographs, illustrations, animations and video clips. They can also be easily edited and customized to your own styles. The corrosion test banks contain over 1,000 corrosion questions for your use in tutorials, tests or examinations. These questions are conveniently grouped into 4 categories in the test bank: (1) true or false, (2) multiple choice, (3) calculation, and (4) reasoning and open-ended discussions).


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Course Outline |Who Should Attend |Registration |In-House |On-Demand |Online Courses |PPT Slides+Testbank |Course List

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