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Electroplating Technology for the Microelectronics and Semiconductor Industry

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 Course Overview


This two-day electroplating course thoroughly and systematically covers the fundamentals and processes of electroplating technology for the microelectronics and semiconductor industry. Participants will learn the fundamentals of electrodeposition processes, the effect of bath variables on the plating quality, the various plating techniques such as DC electroplating, pulse electroplating, electroless plating and immersion plating, and methods for testing, evaluation, and trouble-shooting  of electrodeposits.


This electroplating course can be taken as in-house training course, course-on-demand, online course and distance learning course worldwide. It can also be customized to meet the specific needs of your organization.


Course Outline |Who Should Attend |Registration |In-House |On-Demand |Online Courses |PPT Slides+Testbank |Course List

 Course Outline


1.1 Overview of Electroplating Technology in the Microelectronics and Semiconductor Industry

       1.1.1 Electroplating: An Old Technology with A New Life

       1.1.2 Electroplating and Copper Metallization

       1.1.3 The Breakthrough in Electroplating: Superfilling

       1.1.4 The Dual Damascene Process: the Route to Making Better Chips

       1.1.5 Effects of Additives on Copper Trench Filling

       1.1.6 Some Key Issues

1.2 Electroplating: Basic Terms and Concepts

       1.2.1 Primer on Chemistry

       1.2.2 Redox Reactions

       1.2.3 The Electromotive Force (EMF) Series Series

       1.2.4 Equilibrium Potential, Overpotential and Mixed Potential

       1.2.5 Effect of Concentration on Potential (Nernst Equation)

       1.2.6 Anode, Cathode and Cell Potentials

       1.2.7 Conductivity of Electrolyte

       1.2.8 Electrolysis and Faraday’s Law

1.3 Electroplating: Electrode Kinetics

       1.3.1 Kinetics of Electrodeposition (Tafel & Butler-Volmer Equation)

       1.3.2 Polarisation and Mass Transport (Diffusion)

       1.3.3 The Double Layer

       1.3.4 Rate-Determining Steps in Electrode Reactions

                  Concentration Overvoltage

                  Charge-Transfer Overpotential

                  Crystallisation Overvoltage

                  Resistance Overvoltage

1.4 Materials That Can Be Electroplated: Understanding the Atomic Structure of Metals and Alloys

       1.4.1 The Crystalline Nature of Metals

       1.4.2 Lattice Defects in Metals

       1.4.3 Grains and Grain Boundaries

       1.4.4 Lattice Defects in Alloys

       1.4.5 Effect of Lattice Defects on the Mechanical Property

       1.4.6 Metals That Can Be Electrodeposited

1.5 Electroplating Processes and Process Control

       1.5.1 Overview of Electrodeposition

       1.5.2 Essential Components of a Plating System

       1.5.3 The Nature of Plating Process

       1.5.4 Electroplating Electrolytes

       1.5.5 Mass and Current Relationship

       1.5.6 Current Efficiency

       1.5.7 Quality and Throwing Power

1.6 Exercises and Case Studies

2.1 Electrodeposition Considered at the Atomistic Level

       2.1.1 Mechanisms of Electrodeposition

       2.1.2 Electrocrystallisation: Nucleation and Growth of Nuclei

       2.1.3 Kink Site and Surface Imperfections

       2.1.4 Overall Phase Growth

       2.1.5 Effects of Plating Additives on the Structure and Properties of Electrodeposits

       2.1.6 Other Factors Influencing the Quality of Electrodeposits

       2.1.7 Thickness and Porosity

       2.1.8 Whisker Growth

2.2 Different Plating Processes

       2.2.1 Direct Current Electroplating

       2.2.2 Pulse Current Electroplating Process

       2.2.3 Periodic Pulse Reverse Plating Process

       2.2.4 Effects of Pulse Current, Pulse Shape and Time on the Electrodeposits

       2.2.5 Laser-induced Plating

       2.2.6 Comparison of Different Plating Processes

2.3 Electroless Plating and Immersion Plating

       2.3.1 Fundamentals of Electroless Deposition

       2.3.2 Composition of Electroless Plating Bath

       2.3.3 Operating Conditions of Electroless Plating Baths

       2.3.4 Properties of Electroless Deposits

       2.3.5 Applications of Electroless Deposition

       2.3.6 Electroless Deposition of Composites

2.4 Exercises and Case Studies

2.5 Methods for Testing, Evaluation & Trouble-Shooting of Electrodeposits

       2.5.1 In-situ Observation of Electrodeposition by SPM/STM/SFM

       2.5.2 DC Potential Measurement

       2.5.3 DC Polarization Measurement

       2.5.4 AC Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS)

       2.5.5 Mass Spectrometric Methods: ISS/SIMS/SNMS

       2.5.6 Electron Spectroscopic Methods: XPS/ESCA/AES

       2.5.7 Microscopy and Microanalysis: SEM/TEM/EDX/WDX


Course Outline |Who Should Attend |Registration |In-House |On-Demand |Online Courses |PPT Slides+Testbank |Course List

Who Should Attend


Engineers, designers, and QA/QC personnel working in the microelectronics and semiconductor industry.


 Registration for This  Corrosion Course
  • Click here to register for this short course online, or

  • Click here to download this short course brochure with registration form in PDF format.

 In-House Training Corrosion Courses


If you are concerned with corrosion in your business, in-house training is a great solution to train a group of employees from design, production, operation, quality assurance, inspection and maintenance, and technical sales and support on corrosion control and corrosion prevention technology. The contents of all corrosion courses can be customized to fit your organization's needs.


There is no minimum or maximum number of participants required for in-house training corrosion courses. We conduct the in-house training corrosion course at your company's premises and at a time convenient to your company. Requests for in-house training corrosion courses from overseas countries are also welcome.


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 Corrosion Course-On-Demand


All our publicly scheduled corrosion short courses are conducted once a year. However, you do not need to wait for one year if you have missed any of the publicly scheduled corrosion courses as we have this unique corrosion course-on-demand scheme: we will conduct the course just for you on an one-on-one basis at a time and in a location convenient to you. This option costs significantly less than a full-scale in-house training program.


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 Online and Distance Learning Corrosion Courses

All corrosion courses can be conducted through online or distance learning. An username and password will be emailed to course participants for accessing the online course materials. Alternatively, a CD-ROM containing the same online course material or a master hard copy of corrosion course notes can be sent to your organization. Instructions, course assignments, discussions and questions related to the corrosion courses are posted on the website. Free email support for online courses is provided for a period up to 12 months. A Certificate of Completion will be issued to participants who pass the online test with a score of 70% and above.

Click here to register this corrosion short course for online or distance learning.

 PowerPoint Slides and Test Banks for Trainers, Instructors, Tutors, University Lecturers and Professors


If you are involved in teaching corrosion courses, you may wish to purchase a complete set of PowerPoint slides and the computerized test banks (in MicroTest format) with solutions. These presentations are suitable for teaching corrosion courses at different levels (from undergraduate to postgraduate) and durations (from 6 hrs to 40 hrs). These ready-to-use corrosion PowerPoint slides contain high quality color photographs, illustrations, animations and video clips. They can also be easily edited and customized to your own styles. The corrosion test banks contain over 1,000 corrosion questions for your use in tutorials, tests or examinations. These questions are conveniently grouped into 4 categories in the test bank: (1) true or false, (2) multiple choice, (3) calculation, and (4) reasoning and open-ended discussions).


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Course Outline |Who Should Attend |Registration |In-House |On-Demand |Online Courses |PPT Slides+Testbank |Course List

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