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Corrosion in Oil Refineries:
Inspection, Monitoring and Control


Course Outline |Who Should Attend |Registration |In-House |On-Demand |Online Courses |PPT Slides+Testbank |Course List

 Course Overview


Statistics shows that the total cost of corrosion control in refineries in the US alone is estimated at $3.692 billion. Of this total, maintenance-related expenses are estimated at $1.767 billion annually, vessel turnaround expenses account for $1.425 billion annually, and fouling costs are approximately $0.500 billion annually. Significant cost reduction can be achieved with timely and appropriate corrosion inspection. Asset integrity can be enhanced with corrosion monitoring and corrosion mitigation methods such as materials selection and chemical treatment.


This 5-day corrosion short course covers corrosion inspection, corrosion monitoring and corrosion control in oil refineries.


This corrosion short course is available for on-site training, online and distance learning worldwide. It can also be customized to meet the specific needs of your organization.


Course Outline |Who Should Attend |Registration |In-House |On-Demand |Online Courses |PPT Slides+Testbank |Course List

 Course Outline

1. Review of Corrosion Basics

    1.1 Why Do Metals Corrode? - The Driving Force for Corrosion
    1.2 How Do Metals Corrode? - Different Forms of Corrosion
    1.3 Practical Corrosion Cells Important to Corrosion Diagnosis


2. Overview of Refinery Operations
2.1 Overview of the Refining Process
    2.2 Process Interactions with Corrosion


3. Refinery Corrosion and Inspection

    3.1 Low-Temperature Refinery Corrosion
    3.2 High-Temperature Refinery Corrosion
    3.3 Metal Loss—General and/or Localized Corrosion
          3.3.1 Galvanic Corrosion
          3.3.2 Pitting
          3.3.3 Crevice Corrosion
          3.3.4 Intergranular Attack
          3.3.5 Erosion-Corrosion
          3.3.6 Hydrogen Chloride
          3.3.7 Ammonium Bisulfide
          3.3.8 Carbon Dioxide
          3.3.9 Process Chemicals
          3.3.10 Organic Chlorides
          3.3.11 Aluminum Chloride
          3.3.12 Sulfuric Acid
          3.3.13 Hydrofluoric Acid
          3.3.14 Phosphoric Acid
          3.3.15 Phenol (Carbolic Acid)
          3.3.16 Amines
          3.3.17 Atmospheric Corrosion
          3.3.18 Corrosion Under Insulation (CUI)
          3.3.19 Soil Corrosion
          3.3.20 High-Temperature Sulfide Corrosion
          3.3.21 Naphthenic Acid Corrosion
          3.3.22 High-Temperature Oxidation
    3.4 Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC)
          3.4.1 Chloride Stress Corrosion Cracking (ClSCC)
          3.4.2 Alkaline Stress Corrosion Cracking (ASCC)
          3.4.3 Carbonic Acid (Wet CO2)
          3.4.4 Polythionic Acid Stress Corrosion Cracking (PTA SCC)
          3.4.5 Ammonia Stress Corrosion Cracking
          3.4.6 Wet H2S Cracking
          3.4.7 Hydrogen Blistering
          3.4.8 Sulfide Stress Cracking (SSC)
          3.4.9 Hydrogen Induced Cracking (HIC)
          3.4.10 Stress Oriented Hydrogen Induced Cracking (SOHIC)
          3.4.11 Hydrogen Cyanide (HCN)
          3.4.12 SCC Prevention
          3.4.13 Inspecting for Wet H2S Damage
          3.4.14 High-Temperature Hydrogen Attack (HTHA)
   3.5 Metallurgical Failures
         3.5.1 Grain Growth
         3.5.2 Graphitization
         3.5.3 Hardening
         3.5.4 Sensitization
         3.5.5 Sigma Phase
         3.5.6 885°F (475°C) Embrittlement
         3.5.7 Temper Embrittlement
         3.5.8 Liquid Metal Embrittlement (LME)
         3.5.9 Carburization
         3.5.10 Metal Dusting
         3.5.11 Decarburization
         3.5.12 Selective Leaching
   3.6 Mechanical Failures
         3.6.1 Incorrect or Defective Materials
         3.6.2 Mechanical Fatigue
         3.6.3 Corrosion Fatigue
         3.6.4 Cavitation Damage
         3.6.5 Mechanical Damage
         3.6.6 Overloading
         3.6.7 Overpressuring
         3.6.8 Brittle Fracture
         3.6.9 Creep
         3.6.10 Stress Rupture
         3.6.11 Thermal Shock
         3.6.12 Thermal Fatigue
   3.7 Other Forms of Corrosion
         3.7.1 Boiler Feed Water Corrosion
         3.7.2 Steam Condensate Corrosion
         3.7.3 Cooling Water Corrosion
         3.7.4 Fuel Ash Corrosion


4. Refinery Inspection Areas of Vulnerability

     4.1 Special Inspection Considerations

            4.1.1 General

            4.1.2 Piping

            4.1.3 Safety Relief

            4.1.4 Heaters

            4.1.5 Exchangers

            4.1.6 Vessels

            4.1.7 Tanks

     4.2 Specific Problem Events

            4.2.1 Crude

            4.2.2 Vacuum

            4.2.3 Coker

            4.2.4 Cracker

            4.2.5 Gas Plant

            4.2.6 Reformer

            4.2.7 HDS

            4.2.8 Alkylation

            4.2.9 Hydrocracker

            4.2.10 H2 Reformer

            4.2.11 Ethylene

            4.2.12 Benzene

            4.2.13 Sulphur Recovery

            4.2.14 Boiler

            4.2.15 Pressure Storage

            4.2.16 Piping

            4.2.17 Atmospheric Storage

     4.3 Process Industry Equipment Life

     4.4 Potential Increased Refinery Corrosion Guideline

     4.5 Guidelines for Reporting Refinery Unit Process Changes That Can Potentially Increase Corrosion Rates


5. Corrosion Monitoring Methods in Refineries  

     5.1 The Need for Corrosion Monitoring
     5.2 Classification of Corrosion Monitoring Techniques
     5.3 Corrosion Monitoring Methods
           5.3.1 Corrosion Coupons
           5.3.2 Electrical Resistance (ER)
           5.3.3 Linear Polarization Resistance (LPR)
           5.3.4 Potential Monitoring
           5.3.5 Zero Resistance Ammetry (ZRA)
           5.3.6 Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS)
           5.3.7 Electrochemical Noise (EN)
           5.3.8 Hydrogen Flux Monitoring
    5.4 Comparison and Selection of Monitoring Methods
    5.5 Corrosion Monitoring Program


6. Corrosion Control in Refineries

    6.1 Corrosion Mitigation Methods
           6.1.1 Desalting and Caustic Injection
           6.1.2 Water Washing
           6.1.3 Acid Neutralization
           6.1.4 Barrier between Metal and Environment
    6.2 Chemicals Used to Control Corrosion in Refineries
           6.2.1 Filming Amines
           6.2.2 Filmer Formulation
           6.2.3 Filmer Application
           6.2.4 Treat Rates
           6.2.5 Monitoring Filmer Performance
           6.2.6 Neutralizing Amines
           6.2.7 Polysulfides
           6.2.8 Naphthenic Acid Corrosion Inhibitors
           6.2.9 Application of Corrosion Inhibitors
    6.3 Materials Selection for Corrosion Control in Refineries
           6.3.1 Carbon Steels and Cast Irons
           6.3.2 Low Alloys Steels
           6.3.3 Stainless Steels
           6.3.4 Copper and Its Alloys
           6.3.5 Nickel and Its Alloys
           6.3.6 Aluminium and Its Alloys
           6.3.7 Titanium and Its Alloys
           6.3.8 Refractories, Plastics and Thermosetting Resins

           6.3.9 Corrosion Modeling and Corrosion Prediction with CRA-Compass
    6.4 Heat Treatment
           6.4.1 Normalizing
           6.4.2 Annealing
           6.4.3 Quenching
           6.4.4 Stress Relieving
           6.4.5 Specialized Heat Treatments
           6.4.6 Heat Treatment for Welds
            Postweld Heat Treatment
            PWHT Temperatures for Refinery Steels
    6.5 Welding
    6.6 Failure Analysis in Refineries

7. End of Course Examination


Course Outline |Who Should Attend |Registration |In-House |On-Demand |Online Courses |PPT Slides+Testbank |Course List

Who Should Attend


Designers, Inspection Engineers, Maintenance Engineers, Plant Inspectors, Mechanical Engineers, and Process Engineers in the refining and petrochemical industries.


 Registration for This  Corrosion Course
  • Click here to register for this corrosion course online, or

  • Click here to download this corrosion course brochure with registration form in PDF format.

 In-House Training Corrosion Courses


If you are concerned with corrosion in your business, in-house training is a great solution to train a group of employees from design, production, operation, quality assurance, inspection and maintenance, and technical sales and support on corrosion control and corrosion prevention technology. The contents of all corrosion courses can be customized to fit your organization's needs.


There is no minimum or maximum number of participants required for in-house training corrosion courses. We conduct the in-house training corrosion course at your company's premises and at a time convenient to your company. Requests for in-house training corrosion courses from overseas countries are also welcome.


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 Corrosion Course-On-Demand


All our publicly scheduled corrosion short courses are conducted once a year. However, you do not need to wait for one year if you have missed any of the publicly scheduled corrosion courses as we have this unique corrosion course-on-demand scheme: we will conduct the course just for you on an one-on-one basis at a time and in a location convenient to you. This option costs significantly less than a full-scale in-house training program.


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 Online and Distance Learning Corrosion Courses

All corrosion courses can be conducted through online or distance learning. An username and password will be emailed to course participants for accessing the online course materials. Alternatively, a CD-ROM containing the same online course material or a master hard copy of corrosion course notes can be sent to your organization. Instructions, course assignments, discussions and questions related to the corrosion courses are posted on the website. Free email support for online courses is provided for a period up to 12 months. A Certificate of Completion will be issued to participants who pass the online test with a score of 70% and above.

Click here to register this corrosion short course for online or distance learning.

 PowerPoint Slides and Test Banks for Trainers, Instructors, Tutors, University Lecturers and Professors


If you are involved in teaching corrosion courses, you may wish to purchase a complete set of PowerPoint slides and the computerized test banks (in MicroTest format) with solutions. These presentations are suitable for teaching corrosion courses at different levels (from undergraduate to postgraduate) and durations (from 6 hrs to 40 hrs). These ready-to-use corrosion PowerPoint slides contain high quality color photographs, illustrations, animations and video clips. They can also be easily edited and customized to your own styles. The corrosion test banks contain over 1,000 corrosion questions for your use in tutorials, tests or examinations. These questions are conveniently grouped into 4 categories in the test bank: (1) true or false, (2) multiple choice, (3) calculation, and (4) reasoning and open-ended discussions).


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