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Corrosion in Oil Refineries: Inspection, Monitoring and Control

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 Course Overview


Statistics shows that the total cost of corrosion control in refineries in the US alone is estimated at $3.692 billion. Of this total, maintenance-related expenses are estimated at $1.767 billion annually, vessel turnaround expenses account for $1.425 billion annually, and fouling costs are approximately $0.500 billion annually. Significant cost reduction can be achieved with timely and appropriate corrosion inspection. Asset integrity can be enhanced with corrosion monitoring and corrosion mitigation methods such as materials selection and chemical treatment.


This 5-day corrosion short course covers corrosion inspection, corrosion monitoring and corrosion control in oil refineries.


This corrosion short course is available for on-site training, online and distance learning worldwide. It can also be customized to meet the specific needs of your organization.


Course Outline |Who Should Attend |Registration |In-House |On-Demand |Online Courses |PPT Slides+Testbank |Course List

 Course Outline

1. Review of Corrosion Basics

    1.1 Introduction to Corrosion
    1.2 Basic Concepts in Electrochemistry
    1.3 Why Do Metals Corrode? - The Driving Force for Corrosion
    1.4 How Do Metals Corrode? - Different Forms of Corrosion
   1.5 Practical Corrosion Cells Important to Corrosion Diagnosis

2. Overview of Refinery Operations
2.1 Overview of the Refining Process
    2.2 Process Interactions with Corrosion


3. Refinery Corrosion and Inspection

    3.1 Low-Temperature Refinery Corrosion
    3.2 High-Temperature Refinery Corrosion
    3.3 Metal Loss—General and/or Localized Corrosion
          3.3.1 Galvanic Corrosion
          3.3.2 Pitting
          3.3.3 Crevice Corrosion
          3.3.4 Intergranular Attack
          3.3.5 Erosion-Corrosion
          3.3.6 Hydrogen Chloride
          3.3.7 Ammonium Bisulfide
          3.3.8 Carbon Dioxide
          3.3.9 Process Chemicals
          3.3.10 Organic Chlorides
          3.3.11 Aluminum Chloride
          3.3.12 Sulfuric Acid
          3.3.13 Hydrofluoric Acid
          3.3.14 Phosphoric Acid
          3.3.15 Phenol (Carbolic Acid)
          3.3.16 Amines
          3.3.17 Atmospheric Corrosion
          3.3.18 Corrosion Under Insulation (CUI)
          3.3.19 Soil Corrosion
          3.3.20 High-Temperature Sulfide Corrosion
          3.3.21 Naphthenic Acid Corrosion
          3.3.22 High-Temperature Oxidation
    3.4 Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC)
          3.4.1 Chloride Stress Corrosion Cracking (ClSCC)
          3.4.2 Alkaline Stress Corrosion Cracking (ASCC)
          3.4.3 Carbonic Acid (Wet CO2)
          3.4.4 Polythionic Acid Stress Corrosion Cracking (PTA SCC)
          3.4.5 Ammonia Stress Corrosion Cracking
          3.4.6 Wet H2S Cracking
          3.4.7 Hydrogen Blistering
          3.4.8 Sulfide Stress Cracking (SSC)
          3.4.9 Hydrogen Induced Cracking (HIC)
          3.4.10 Stress Oriented Hydrogen Induced Cracking (SOHIC)
          3.4.11 Hydrogen Cyanide (HCN)
          3.4.12 SCC Prevention
          3.4.13 Inspecting for Wet H2S Damage
          3.4.14 High-Temperature Hydrogen Attack (HTHA)
   3.5 Metallurgical Failures
         3.5.1 Grain Growth
         3.5.2 Graphitization
         3.5.3 Hardening
         3.5.4 Sensitization
         3.5.5 Sigma Phase
         3.5.6 885°F (475°C) Embrittlement
         3.5.7 Temper Embrittlement
         3.5.8 Liquid Metal Embrittlement (LME)
         3.5.9 Carburization
         3.5.10 Metal Dusting
         3.5.11 Decarburization
         3.5.12 Selective Leaching
   3.6 Mechanical Failures
         3.6.1 Incorrect or Defective Materials
         3.6.2 Mechanical Fatigue
         3.6.3 Corrosion Fatigue
         3.6.4 Cavitation Damage
         3.6.5 Mechanical Damage
         3.6.6 Overloading
         3.6.7 Overpressuring
         3.6.8 Brittle Fracture
         3.6.9 Creep
         3.6.10 Stress Rupture
         3.6.11 Thermal Shock
         3.6.12 Thermal Fatigue
   3.7 Other Forms of Corrosion
         3.7.1 Boiler Feed Water Corrosion
         3.7.2 Steam Condensate Corrosion
         3.7.3 Cooling Water Corrosion
         3.7.4 Fuel Ash Corrosion

 3.8 Damage Mechanisms in Specific Units
        3.8.1 Crude Distillation and Desalting
        3.8.2 Fluid Catalytic Cracking Units
        3.8.3 Cracked Light Ends Recovery Units
        3.8.4 Hydrofluoric Acid Alkylation Units
        3.8.5 Sulfuric Acid Alkylation Units
        3.8.6 Hydroprocessing Units
        3.8.7 Catalytic Reforming Units
        3.8.8 Delayed Coking Units
        3.8.9 Amine Treating Units
        3.8.10 Sulfur Recovery Unitsn



4. Refinery Inspection Areas of Vulnerability

     4.1 Special Inspection Considerations

            4.1.1 General

            4.1.2 Piping

            4.1.3 Safety Relief

            4.1.4 Heaters

            4.1.5 Exchangers

            4.1.6 Vessels

            4.1.7 Tanks

     4.2 Specific Problem Events

            4.2.1 Crude

            4.2.2 Vacuum

            4.2.3 Coker

            4.2.4 Cracker

            4.2.5 Gas Plant

            4.2.6 Reformer

            4.2.7 HDS

            4.2.8 Alkylation

            4.2.9 Hydrocracker

            4.2.10 H2 Reformer

            4.2.11 Ethylene

            4.2.12 Benzene

            4.2.13 Sulphur Recovery

            4.2.14 Boiler

            4.2.15 Pressure Storage

            4.2.16 Piping

            4.2.17 Atmospheric Storage

     4.3 Process Industry Equipment Life

     4.4 Potential Increased Refinery Corrosion Guideline

     4.5 Guidelines for Reporting Refinery Unit Process Changes That Can Potentially Increase Corrosion Rates


5. Corrosion Monitoring Methods in Refineries  

     5.1 The Need for Corrosion Monitoring
     5.2 Classification of Corrosion Monitoring Techniques
     5.3 Corrosion Monitoring Methods
           5.3.1 Corrosion Coupons
           5.3.2 Electrical Resistance (ER)
           5.3.3 Linear Polarization Resistance (LPR)
           5.3.4 Potential Monitoring
           5.3.5 Zero Resistance Ammetry (ZRA)
           5.3.6 Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS)
           5.3.7 Electrochemical Noise (EN)
           5.3.8 Hydrogen Flux Monitoring
    5.4 Comparison and Selection of Monitoring Methods
    5.5 Corrosion Monitoring Program


6. Corrosion Control in Refineries

    6.1 Corrosion Mitigation Methods
           6.1.1 Desalting and Caustic Injection
           6.1.2 Water Washing
           6.1.3 Acid Neutralization
           6.1.4 Barrier between Metal and Environment
    6.2 Chemicals Used to Control Corrosion in Refineries
           6.2.1 Filming Amines
           6.2.2 Filmer Formulation
           6.2.3 Filmer Application
           6.2.4 Treat Rates
           6.2.5 Monitoring Filmer Performance
           6.2.6 Neutralizing Amines
           6.2.7 Polysulfides
           6.2.8 Naphthenic Acid Corrosion Inhibitors
           6.2.9 Application of Corrosion Inhibitors
    6.3 Materials Selection for Corrosion Control in Refineries
           6.3.1 Carbon Steels and Cast Irons
           6.3.2 Low Alloys Steels
           6.3.3 Stainless Steels
           6.3.4 Copper and Its Alloys
           6.3.5 Nickel and Its Alloys
           6.3.6 Aluminium and Its Alloys
           6.3.7 Titanium and Its Alloys
           6.3.8 Refractories, Plastics and Thermosetting Resins

           6.3.9 Corrosion Modeling and Corrosion Prediction with CRA-Compass
    6.4 Heat Treatment
           6.4.1 Normalizing
           6.4.2 Annealing
           6.4.3 Quenching
           6.4.4 Stress Relieving
           6.4.5 Specialized Heat Treatments
           6.4.6 Heat Treatment for Welds
            Postweld Heat Treatment
            PWHT Temperatures for Refinery Steels
    6.5 Welding
    6.6 Failure Analysis in Refineries

           6.1 Introduction to Failure Analysis in Refineries

           6.2 Procedural Approach and Test Methods

           6.3 Guidelines to Failure Analysis in Refineries

    6.7 Software Solutions for Refinery Corrosion: Corrosion Prediction Software for the Refining and Petrochemical Industries

7. End of Course Examination


Course Outline |Who Should Attend |Registration |In-House |On-Demand |Online Courses |PPT Slides+Testbank |Course List

Who Should Attend This Corrosion Course


Designers, Inspection Engineers, Maintenance Engineers, Plant Inspectors, Mechanical Engineers, and Process Engineers in the refining and petrochemical industries.


 Registration for This  Corrosion Course


Click here to register for this corrosion course online, or

Click here to download this corrosion course brochure with registration form in PDF format.


 In-House Training Corrosion Courses


If you are concerned with corrosion in your company, in-house training or on-site training is a great solution to train a group of employees from design, production, operation, quality assurance, inspection and maintenance, and technical sales and support on corrosion control and corrosion prevention technology. The contents of all our corrosion courses can be customized to fit your organization's needs.


There is no limit to the number of participants required for in-house training corrosion courses. We conduct the in-house training corrosion course at your company's premises worldwide, and at a time convenient to your company.


Click here to contact us for a quotation for in-house training corrosion courses.

 Corrosion Course-On-Demand


All our publicly scheduled corrosion short courses are conducted once a year. However, you do not need to wait for one year if you have missed any of the publicly scheduled corrosion courses as we have this unique corrosion course-on-demand scheme: we will conduct the course just for you (on an one-on-one basis) or for a small group from your company at a time and in a location convenient to you. This option costs significantly less than a full-scale in-house or on-site corrosion training program.


Click here to contact us for a quotation.

 Online and Distance Learning Corrosion Courses


All our corrosion short courses are available for online or offline distance learning. You can start an online corrosion course at any time and learn at your own comfortable pace and schedule, whenever and wherever you are. You have around-the-clock access to the interactive and media-rich course materials, virtual labs, course instructions and course assessments. Discussions and questions related to the corrosion courses are posted on the website or exchanged through email for a period up to 3 months. Video conferencing or instant messaging can also be arranged for discussions of course topics. For those who do not have ready access to internet, we can send you our online course materials on a CD-ROM, or DVD, or USB flash drive for offline distance learning.


Click here to to register an online corrosion short course.

 PowerPoint Slides and Test Banks for Trainers, Instructors, Tutors, University Lecturers and Professors


If you are involved in teaching or training, you may wish to purchase a complete set of the trainer's package for this training course. The trainer's package comes complete with ready-to-use PowerPoint slides (fully editable) and test bank (with answer keys). These ready-to-use PowerPoint slides contain high quality color photographs, illustrations, animations, audio and video clips. The test bank contains questions conveniently grouped into four categories: (1) true or false, (2) multiple choice, (3) calculation, and (4) reasoning and open-ended discussions. The trainer's package is suitable for in-house training and university teaching (30 lecture hours). This is exactly the same package that WebCorr uses to deliver our current training course.

The one-time lump sum fee allows your organization to use the training package and also modify it. For example, your organization may modify the course contents and re-name/re-brand the course under your organization’s name. WebCorr only retains the copyright of the original PowerPoint slides and test banks.


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Course Outline |Who Should Attend |Registration |In-House |On-Demand |Online Courses |PPT Slides+Testbank |Course List

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