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API 571 Damage Mechanisms Affecting Fixed Equipment in the Refining and Petrochemical Industries
 

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 Course Overview

API RP 571-2011 is the latest edition that describes damage mechanisms affecting equipment in the refining and petrochemical industries. A key first step in managing equipment safety and reliability is the identification and understanding of the various damage mechanisms. Proper identification of damage mechanisms is also required when implementing the API Inspection Codes (API 510, API 570, API 653) and in carrying out risk based inspection (RBI) per API 580 and API 581. When performing a fitness-for-service (FFS) assessment using API 579, the damage mechanisms need to be understood and need to be considered when evaluating the remaining life.

 

This 5-day corrosion short course aims to provide the participants with a thorough understanding of the various damage mechanisms contained in the latest edition of API RP 571-2011 that can affect process equipment, the type and extent of damage that can be expected, and how this knowledge can be applied to the selection of effective inspection methods to detect size and characterize damage. The 66 damage mechanisms to be discussed in this corrosion short course are common to a variety of industries including refining and petrochemical, pulp and paper, and fossil utility:

 

DM#

Damage Mechanism

DM#

Damage Mechanism

1

Sulfidation

34

Softening (Spheroidization)

2

Wet H2S Damage (Blistering/HIC/SOHIC/SSC)

35

Reheat Cracking

3

Creep / Stress Rupture

36

Sulfuric Acid Corrosion

4

High temperature H2/H2S Corrosion

37

Hydrofluoric Acid (HF)Corrosion

5

Polythionic Acid Stress Corrosion Cracking

38

Flue Gas Dew Point Corrosion

6

Naphthenic Acid Corrosion (NAC)

39

Dissimilar Metal Weld (DMW) Cracking

7

Ammonium Bisulfide Corrosion

40

Hydrogen Stress Cracking in HF

8

Ammonium Chloride Corrosion

41

Dealloying (Dezincification/ Denickelification)

9

Hydrochloric Acid (HCl )  Corrosion

42

CO2 Corrosion

10

High Temperature  Hydrogen Attack (HTHA)

43

Corrosion Fatigue

11

Oxidation

44

Fuel Ash Corrosion

12

Thermal Fatigue

45

Amine Corrosion

13

Sour Water Corrosion (acidic )

46

Corrosion Under Insulation (CUI)

14

Refractory Degradation

47

Atmospheric  Corrosion

15

Graphitization

48

Ammonia Stress Corrosion Cracking

16

Temper Embrittlement

49

Cooling Water Corrosion

17

Decarburization

50

Boiler Water I Condensate Corrosion

18

Caustic Stress Corrosion Cracking

51

Microbiologically Induced Corrosion (MIC)

19

Caustic Corrosion

52

Liquid Metal Embrittlement

20

Erosion I Erosion-Corrosion

53

Galvanic Corrosion

21

Carbonate Stress Corrosion Cracking (ACSCC)

54

Mechanical Fatigue

22

Amine Cracking

55

Nitriding

23

Chloride Stress Corrosion Cracking

56

Vibration-Induced Fatigue

24

Carburization

57

Titanium Hydriding

25

Hydrogen Embrittlement

58

Soil Corrosion

26

Steam Blanketing

59

Metal Dusting

27

Thermal Shock

60

Strain Aging

28

Cavitation

61

Sulfate Stress Corrosion Cracking

29

Graphitic Corrosion (see Dealloying)

62

Phosphoric  Acid Corrosion

30

Short term Overheating – Stress Rupture

63

Phenol (carbolic acid) Corrosion

31

Brittle Fracture

64

Ethanol Stress Corrosion Cracking

32

Sigma  Phase  / Chi Embrittlement

65

Oxygen-Enhanced Ignition and Combustion

 33

  885°F (475°C) Embrittlement

 66

Organic  Acid  Corrosion   Of  Distillation Tower Overhead Systems

 

This corrosion short course is available for in-house training, online and distance learning worldwide. It can also be customized to meet the specific needs of your organization.

 

Course Outline |Who Should Attend |Registration |In-House |On-Demand |Online Courses |PPT Slides+Testbank |Course List


 Course Outline
 

1. Introduction to Corrosion

    1.1 Corrosion: Definition and Examples

    1.2 Basic Concepts in Electrochemistry

    1.3 Why Do Metals Corrode

    1.4 Kinetics: the Rate of Corrosion

    1.5 How Do Metals Corrode: Different Forms of Corrosion

    1.6 General Methods for Corrosion Control

 

2. Common Alloys Used in the Refining and Petrochemical Industries
 

3. Overview of API RP 571-2011

 

4. General Damage Mechanisms – All Industries Including Refining and
    Petrochemical, Pulp and Paper, and Fossil Utility  

    4.1 General

    4.2 Mechanical and Metallurgical Failure Mechanisms

           4.2.1 Graphitization

           4.2.2 Softening (Spheroidization)

           4.2.3 Temper Embrittlement

           4.2.4 Strain Aging

           4.2.5 885oF Embrittlement

           4.2.6 Sigma Phase Embrittlement

           4.2.7 Brittle Fracture

           4.2.8 Creep / Stress Rupture

           4.2.9 Thermal Fatigue

           4.2.10 Short Term Overheating – Stress Rupture

           4.2.11 Steam Blanketing

           4.2.12 Dissimilar Metal Weld (DMW) Cracking

           4.2.13 Thermal Shock

           4.2.14 Erosion / Erosion-Corrosion

           4.2.15 Cavitation

           4.2.16 Mechanical Fatigue

           4.2.17 Vibration-Induced Fatigue

           4.2.18 Refractory Degradation

           4.2.19 Reheat Cracking

           4.2.20 Gaseous Oxygen-Enhanced Ignition and Combustion

 

    4.3 Uniform or Localized Loss of Thickness

           4.3.1 Galvanic Corrosion

           4.3.2 Atmospheric Corrosion

           4.3.3 Corrosion Under Insulation (CUI)

           4.3.4 Cooling Water Corrosion

           4.3.5 Boiler Water Condensate Corrosion

           4.3.6 CO2 Corrosion

           4.3.7 Flue Gas Dew Point Corrosion

           4.3.8 Microbiologically Induced Corrosion (MIC)

           4.3.9 Soil Corrosion

           4.3.10 Caustic Corrosion

           4.3.11 Dealloying

           4.3.12 Graphitic Corrosion

    4.4 High Temperature Corrosion [400oF (204oC)]

           4.4.1 Oxidation

           4.4.2 Sulfidation

           4.4.3 Carburization

           4.4.4 Decarburization

           4.4.5 Metal Dusting

           4.4.6 Fuel Ash Corrosion

           4.4.7 Nitriding

    4.5 Environment – Assisted Cracking

          4.5.1 Chloride Stress Corrosion Cracking (CI–SCC)

          4.5.2 Corrosion Fatigue

          4.5.3 Caustic Stress Corrosion Cracking (Caustic Embrittlement)

          4.5.4 Ammonia Stress Corrosion Cracking

          4.5.5 Liquid Metal Embrittlement (LME)

          4.5.6 Hydrogen Embrittlement (HE)

          4.5.7 Ethanol Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC)

          4.5.8 Sulfate Stress Corrosion Cracking

 

5  Refining Industry Damage Mechanisms

    5.1 General

           5.1.1 Uniform or Localized Loss in Thickness Phenomena

                      5.1.1.1 Amine Corrosion

                      5.1.1.2 Ammonium Bisulfide Corrosion (Alkaline Sour Water)

                      5.1.1.3 Ammonium Chloride Corrosion

                      5.1.1.4 Hydrochloric Acid (HCl) Corrosion

                      5.1.1.5 High Temperature H2/H2S Corrosion

                      5.1.1.6 Hydrofluoric (HF) Acid Corrosion

                      5.1.1.7 Naphthenic Acid Corrosion (NAC)

                      5.1.1.8 Phenol (Carbonic Acid) Corrosion

                      5.1.1.9 Phosphoric Acid Corrosion

                      5.1.1.11 Sulfuric Acid Corrosion

                      5.1.1.12 Aqueous Organic Acid Corrosion

            5.1.2 Environment–Assisted Cracking

                      5.1.2.1 Polythionic Acid Stress Corrosion Cracking (PASCC)

                      5.1.2.2 Amine Stress Corrosion Cracking

                      5.1.2.3 Wet H2S Damage (Blistering / HIC / SOHIC / SCC)

                      5.1.2.4 Hydrogen Stress Cracking – HF

                      5.1.2.5 Carbonate Stress Corrosion Cracking (ACSCC)

            5.1.3 Other Mechanisms

                      5.1.3.1 High Temperature Hydrogen Attack (HTHA)

                      5.1.3.2 Titanium Hydriding

      5.2 Process Unit PFD’s

             5.2.1 Crude Unit / Vacuum

             5.2.2 Delayed Coker

             5.2.3 Fluid Catalytic Cracking

             5.2.4 FCC Light Ends Recovery

             5.2.5 Catalytic Reforming – CCR

             5.2.6 Catalytic Reforming – Fixed Bed

             5.2.7 Hydroprocessing Units – Hydrotreating, Hydrocracking

             5.2.8 Sulfuric Acid Alkylation

             5.2.9 HF Alkylation

             5.2.10 Amine Treating

             5.2.11 Sulfur Recovery

             5.2.12 Sour Water Stripper

             5.2.13 Isomerization

             5.2.14 Hydrogen Reforming

 

6. API 571 Course Examination

 

Course Outline |Who Should Attend |Registration |In-House |On-Demand |Online Courses |PPT Slides+Testbank |Course List


Who Should Attend

 

Designers, Inspection Engineers, Maintenance Engineers, Plant Inspectors, Mechanical Engineers, and Process Engineers in the refining and petrochemical industries.

 

 Registration for This  Corrosion Course
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 In-House Training Corrosion Courses/On-Site Training Corrosion Courses

 

If you are concerned with corrosion in your business, in-house training or on-site training is a great solution to train a group of employees from design, production, operation, quality assurance, inspection and maintenance, and technical sales and support on corrosion control and corrosion prevention technology. The contents of all our corrosion courses can be customized to fit your organization's needs.

 

There is no limit to the number of participants required for in-house training corrosion courses or on-site training corrosion courses. We conduct the in-house or on-site  training corrosion courses at your company's premises worldwide and at a time convenient to your company.

 

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All our publicly scheduled corrosion short courses are conducted once a year. However, you do not need to wait for one year if you have missed any of the publicly scheduled corrosion courses as we have this unique corrosion course-on-demand scheme: we will conduct the course just for you on an one-on-one basis at a time and in a location convenient to you. This option costs significantly less than a full-scale in-house training program.

 

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 PowerPoint Slides and Test Banks for Trainers, Instructors, Tutors, University Lecturers and Professors

 

If you are involved in teaching corrosion courses, you may wish to purchase a complete set of PowerPoint slides and the computerized test banks (in MicroTest format) with solutions. These presentations are suitable for teaching corrosion courses at different levels (from undergraduate to postgraduate) and durations (from 6 hrs to 40 hrs). These ready-to-use corrosion PowerPoint slides contain high quality color photographs, illustrations, animations and video clips. They can also be easily edited and customized to your own styles. The corrosion test banks contain over 1,000 corrosion questions for your use in tutorials, tests or examinations. These questions are conveniently grouped into 4 categories in the test bank: (1) true or false, (2) multiple choice, (3) calculation, and (4) reasoning and open-ended discussions).

 

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